Structural Anomalies that Contribute to Speech Problems
Speech irregularities can be caused by structural anomalies in the mouth and teeth. When we evaluate children for speech sound delays or disorders, we assess their mouths and teeth for any observed deviations in structure or form, as these can directly impact the sounds they are able to make. The structural anomalies below are the most common ones that affect speech production and sounds.
- Tongue Thrust:
Tongue thrusting is the habit of pushing the tongue against or between the front teeth when speaking or swallowing. This can have an impact on normal swallow pattern, speech, and dentition (the development of the teeth and their arrangement in the mouth). Most children outgrow a tongue thrust. If they do not, a trained speech language pathologist (SLP) can help re-train the muscles to a normal speech and swallowing pattern.
- Open Bite/Malocclusions:
Open bite/malocclusion is an anomaly in the alignment of the teeth. This can be caused by prolonged pacifier usage and thumb sucking, which can alter dentition as teeth grow in and cause speech problems. The structural part of the problem can be solved by an orthodontist and the functional problems that coincide with this can be addressed by a speech therapist.
- Cleft Lip/Palate:
A cleft lip/palate occurs when the roof of the mouth has an opening into the nose. This can cause feeding problems, speech problems, and other health related issues. Repairing a cleft lip/palate requires a surgical team. Often, after surgery, the child is referred to speech therapy. In the case of a sub mucous cleft (which is less common and sometimes goes undetected until a child presents with speech, feeding, or other problems at a later time), a referral to a physician would also be warranted for this type of anomaly to determine if repair would be needed .